Microbiology essay questions 51139

QuestionPlease choose 7 of the following 10 questions listed below. Your answer for each questionshould be a minimum of 150 words (half page). Please number your answers and print thenumber of the question you are answering above your answers. Identify subsectionsaccordingly.1) Blood isolated from an emergency room patient contains antibodies against the measlesvirus. Please explain whether or not the patient should be quarantined immediately becausethey are infected with the measles virus and why? What are the other plausible explanations foranti-measles antibodies in the patient’s blood?2) Describe how the clonal expansion theory explains the more rapid production of antigenspecific antibodies, Helper T-cells and Cytotoxic T-cells, during a secondary infection.3) Positive diagnosis of AIDS is made when a patient has antibodies against the humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV). Please explain why the patient has an immune deficiency if he orshe is making antibodies?4) Characterize the differences and similarities between innate and adaptive immunity in formand function.5) What is the effect of discharging primary-treated sewage on the biochemical oxygen demand(BOD) and dissolved O2 (DO) of the receiving body of water? What is the effect of secondarytreated sewage on the BOD and DO?6) A newspaper headline reported “Algal Bloom Kills Fish.” As you read, you find that the algaedid not produce toxins. Please explain what actually caused fish death, given that the algae arenot toxic? What could have caused the algal bloom?7) Explain the data from a bioremediation experiment in Table 1 below.Table 1: These results were obtained from a bioremediation experiment:8) What is fermentation and how can it be used to preserve foods? Please give specificexamples in your explanation.9) Compare and contrast how a farmer would use Rhizobium versus Bacillus thuringiensis? Arethere any other types of microbes the farmer could use for similar purposes?Figure 110) Salmonella heidelberg gastroenteritis occurred on three cruises aboard the T.S.S. Festivale.Figure 1 shows on-board clinic visits for diarrheal illness between February 10 and March 3.a. Explain the incidence pattern shown on the graph.b. What are probable modes of transmission?c. What changes would you recommend before the ship books more cruises after March 3?