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Write 200 word summary AND 200 word reaction comment/opinion of article links

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Chapter 12
Poems of Ouyang Xiu: http://chinese-poems.com/oyx.htmlPoemsof Li Bai: http://www.chinese-poems.com/lb.htmlNOTE:If you select either of these documents, you do not need to summarize the poems. Instead, please write a 300-350 word essay of your reaction(s) at three poems you read.
Tang Taizong, Excerpts from “The Art of Government:”The Diary of Lady Sarashina (1009-1059): http://history.hanover.edu/texts/diaries/diaryall.html

Chapter 13
Japanese Creation Myth (712 CE): http://public.wsu.edu/~brians/world_civ/worldcivreader/world_civ_reader_1/kojiki.htmlAncient Korean Poems: Read and summarize at least three. http://www.korea.net/NewsFocus/Culture/view?articleId=120978“Mountainsand Rivers of the Southern Country” (Vietnamese Poem) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nam_qu%E1%BB%91c_s%C6%A1n_h%C3%A0


The medieval era in India began with the rise of the Rajputs. The Rajputs were an image of feudalism and chivalry. Though they were devoted warriors, the Rajputs fought among themselves and weakened their empire. The medieval history of India is largely dominated by incidents of foreign rule and invasion due to lack of stability in Indian rulers. The weakening of the Rajputs attracted the Turks who invaded India on every given opportunity. The Turks were not just interested in India's wealth but also wanted to establish their empires and take over other

kingdoms. The ruler of Delhi and one of the bravest Rajput soldiers Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated by the Turkish invader Mohammad Ghori. He captured Delhi and appointed one of the military slaves Qutub-ud-din Aibak as its ruler. Qutub-ud-din Aibak started a series of new rulers. known as the Slave dynasty. This marked the beginning of the Delhi Sultanate.

After the Slave dynasty came the Khilji dynasty. The Khilji dynasty was marked by gruesome battles and capturing of power from one another. The last ruler of the Khilji dynasty was not an able ruler and was murdered which ended the Khilji dynasty. Then came the Tughlaqs, Sayyids and Lodhis who ruled Delhi one after the other in quick succession. After this, the first battle of Panipat took place which marked the end of the Lodhi dynasty and the start of the Mughal rule in India. Medieval India also saw the rise of a culture called Sikhism and was also influenced by Sufism. Medieval architecture was a blend of Hindu and Islamic styles of architectures.

Islam had moved across Persia and Afghanistan and entered northwestern India by the 800s. The Rajput attempted to stop the advance of Islam into India, but their armies could not stop the fervent warriors of Islam. By the twelfth century, Muslim control had centered on the Delhi Sultanate. By the early 1500s, Muslim control had extended into much of India and came into conflict with the polytheistic Hindus. Islam had also crossed over into the Indies through Malaysia and finally into the southern islands of the Philippine chain.


The political disorder after the collapse of the Han dynasty was reversed by the establishment of centralized government under the Sui, Tang, Song, and Ming dynasties. China experienced trade and agricultural expansion, significant technological advances, emphasis on Chinese tradition, including the patriarchal family and Confucian teachings.

The Tang dynasty conquered present-day Afghanistan and portions of Tibet, Manchuria, and South Vietnam. To solidify and protect their vast empire, the Tang used diplomacy and strengthening the Great Wall. The expanding Tang empire centered on a bureaucracy influenced by the scholar-gentry and by Confucian perceptions of effective government. Both the Tang and the Song strengthened the Chinese civil service examination. Despite the emphasis on Confucian principles, Buddhism gained acceptance during the Tang dynasty. By the early 10th Century, internal rebellion and invasions by nomads weakened the authority and control of the Tang.

The Song replaced the Tang in the mid-900s. The Song strengthened many Chinese traditions. They emphasized the scholar- gentry over the military and the civil service exam. Neo-Confucianism rose as a blend of Confucian and Buddhist values. From the onset, the Song paid tribute to the Khitan to keep them from taking over more Song territory. The tribute burdened the Song economy. Toward the end of their rule, the Song now faced the threat of the Jurchens who had replaced the Khitan and came to dominate the basin of the Huang He (Yellow) River. The Song consolidated their rule of the Yangtze River basin.

The Song was overcome in the 13th Century by the Mongols, a society of pastoral nomads from the steppes of Central Asia. By the end of the 1400s, the

Mongols had conquered China, Persia, and Russia and created the largest empire in history. In establishing their empire, they facilitated the flow of trade between Europe and Asia and brought bubonic plague to three continents. They were accomplished horsemen
and traded with settled agricultural peoples for grain and vegetables. The

basic unit of Mongol society was the tribe.
The leader credited with organizing the Mongols into an effective

confederation was Temujin, who was renamed Genghis (Chinggis) Khan.
After the death of Chinggis Khan in 1227, the Mongols continued to
expand westward into Russia, who called the eastern nomads Tartars.
They burned and massacred and sold survivors into slavery. The Mongols
kept Russia culturally isolated from the West. In the mid-1200s the Mongols invaded Hungary, the first step to an invasion of Europe. However, internal problems back in Mongolia forestalled the intended invasion.

A grandson of Genghis Khan, Kublai Khan conquered most of the remaining territory of the Song. By 1271, he began to refer to his administration of China as the Yuan dynasty, which lasted until its overthrow by the Ming dynasty in 1368.

The Ming Dynasty ruled China from 1368 to 1644. It was the last ethnic Han-led dynasty in China, supplanting the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty before falling to the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty. Although the Ming capital, Beijing, fell in 1644, remnants of the Ming throne and power survived until 1662. The Civil Service and a strong centralized government developed during this period. Commerce, trade and also naval exploration flourished with ships possible reaching the Americas in 1421 , before Christopher Columbus set sail in 1492. Towards the end of the Ming rule, Portugal founded the first European colony, Macao, in China in 557). Ming rule saw the construction of a vast navy, including four-masted ships of 1,500 tons displacement, and a standing army of 1,000,000 troops. Many books were printed using movable type. There were strong feelings amongst the Han ethnic group against the rule by non-Han ethnic groups during the subsequent Qing Dynasty, and the restoration of the Ming dynasty was used as a rallying cry up until the modern era. Towards the end of the dynasty, the emperors increasingly retired from public life and power devolved to influential officials. Strife among the ministers and corruption in the court all contributed to the demise of this long dynasty. Their successors would have to deal with the increased influence of the European powers in China, and the subsequent loss of complete autonomy. The earlier overseas explorations yielded to isolationism as the idea that all outside of China was barbarian took hold.


By 4000 BC there were stone age farmers living in Korea. By 1000 BC they had learned to use bronze. By about 300 BC they had learned to use iron to make tools and weapons. At first Korea was divided into tribes but eventually organized kingdoms emerged. There were three: Goguryeo in the north and Silla and Baekje in the south. The three kingdoms emerged between the second and fourth centuries AD. These kingdoms were heavily influenced by Chinese civilization. The three kingdoms of Korea fought for supremacy. China tried to defeat the northern kingdom of Goguryeo twice. Both times they were defeated. However, the Chinese then made an alliance with the Silla kingdom against the other two. The Baekje kingdom was defeated by 660 AD and became part of Silla. Goguryeo followed in 668. Korea was then united under the Silla.

Although Korea was united under one monarch, it was still largely a tribal society. This was underlined by the existence of the hwabaek. Originally they were a council of tribal leaders. Later they were a council of nobles and they had the power to decide who succeeded to the throne. Korean society was strictly hierarchical. Most of the population were serfs and even the nobility were divided into ranks. Following the Chinese example a university was formed where Confucian classics were taught. There were also civil service exams following the Chinese model. Buddhism was introduced into Korea in the 4th century AD, and soon many Buddhist temples were built. In the late 8th century AD the Silla kingdom began to break down. There were fights over the succession to the throne. Moreover, local warlords began to break away from the government in the capital, Gyeongju, and formed their own states. One warlord called Wang Geon formed a state called Goryeo in 918. He defeated his rivals and in 935 became ruler of Silla.

The Goryeo kingdom was faced with aggressive neighbors. A people called the Jurchens conquered north China and frequently fought the Koreans. Then China fell to the Mongols. They soon turned their attention to Korea and they invaded in 1231. The Korean royal family fled to the island of Ganghwado. The Mongols were unable to take the island, but they were able to rampage throughout mainland Korea. The Koreans fought back and the Mongols were never able to completely subdue Korea. Finally in 1258 the Korean royal family surrendered. They were allowed to remain as puppet rulers.

In the 13th century the Chinese philosophy called Neo-Confucianism arrived in Korea. A man named Kim Bu-sik wrote a history of Korea called Samguksagi, The History of the Three Kingdoms. However the Goryeo dynasty was in decline. In 1392 a General named Yi Seong-gye was ordered to lead an army against the Ming rulers of China. Instead he turned against his own ruler. The general became the new king of Korea. The king moved the capital to Hanseong (Seoul) in 1394. Under the Yi rulers Confucianism was made the official religion of Korea. Buddhism lost its influence. In 1443, king Sejong created a native Korean alphabet.


Japan's early history is lost in legend. The divine design of the empire—supposedly founded in 660 B.C. by the emperor Jimmu, a lineal descendant of the sun goddess and ancestor of the present emperor—was held as official dogma until 1945. Actually, reliable records date back only to about A.D. 400. In the first centuries of the Christian era the country was inhabited by numerous clans or tribal kingdoms ruled by priest-chiefs. Contacts with Korea were close, and bronze and iron implements were probably introduced by invaders from Korea around the 1st century. By the fifth century, the Yamato clan, whose original home was apparently in Kyushu, had settled in the vicinity of modern Kyoto and had established a loose control over the other clans of central and western Japan, laying the foundation of the Japanese state.

From the sixth to the eighth century, the rapidly developing society gained much in the arts of civilization under the strong cultural influence of China, then flourishing in the splendor of the T'ang dynasty. Buddhism was introduced, and the Japanese upper classes assiduously studied Chinese language, literature, philosophy, art, science, and government, creating their own forms adapted from Chinese models. A partially successful attempt was made to set up a centralized, bureaucratic government like that of imperial China. The Yamato priest-chief assumed the dignity of an emperor, and an imposing capital city, modeled on the T'ang capital, was erected at Nara, to be succeeded by an equally imposing capital at Kyoto.

By the ninth century, however, the powerful Fujiwara family had established a firm control over the imperial court. The Fujiwara influence and the power of the Buddhist priesthood undermined the authority of the imperial government. Provincial gentry—particularly the great clans who opposed the Fujiwara—evaded imperial taxes and grew strong. A feudal system developed. Civil warfare was almost continuous in the twelth century.

The Minamoto family defeated their rivals, the Taira, and became masters of Japan. Their great leader, Yoritomo, took the title of shogun, established his capital at Kamakura, and set up a military dictatorship. For the next 700 years Japan was ruled by warriors. The old civil administration was not abolished, but gradually decayed, and the imperial court at Kyoto fell into obscurity. The Minamoto soon gave way to the Hojo, who managed the Kamakura administration as regents for puppet shoguns, much as the Fujiwara had controlled the imperial court.

In 1274 and again in 1281 the Mongols under Kublai Khan tried unsuccessfully to invade the country (see kamikaze). In 1331 the emperor Daigo II attempted to restore imperial rule. He failed, but the revolt brought about the downfall of the Kamakura regime. The Ashikaga family took over the shogunate in 1338 and settled at Kyoto, but were unable to consolidate their power. The next 250 years were marked by civil wars, during which the feudal barons (the daimyo) and the Buddhist monasteries built up local domains and private armies. Nevertheless, in the midst of incessant wars there was a brisk development of manufacturing and trade, typified by the rise of Sakai (later Osaka) as a free city not subject to feudal control. This period saw the birth of a middle class. Extensive maritime commerce was carried on with the continent and with SE Asia; Japanese traders and pirates


About 2,000 years ago people in North Vietnam began growing rice in the Red River Valley. To irrigate their crops they built dykes and dug canals. They were forced to work together and so an organized kingdom emerged called Van Lang. However in the 2nd century BC the Chinese conquered the area. The Chinese ruled northern Vietnam for more than 1,000 years and Chinese civilization had a great impact on the Vietnamese. However, in South Vietnam there was Indian influence. From the 1st century to the 6th century AD the southernmost part of Vietnam was part of a state called Funan. In the middle of Vietnam an Indian influenced state called Champa arose in the 2nd century AD.

In North Vietnam the people resented Chinese rule and in 40 AD the Trung sisters led a rebellion. They formed an independent state. However, in 43 AD the Chinese crushed the rebellion and the sisters killed themselves. The Chinese continued to rule North Vietnam until the 10th century. Finally, in 938 a leader named Ngo Quyen defeated the Chinese at the battle of Bach Dang River and North Vietnam became an independent state.

In the 13th century the Mongols invaded Vietnam three times. In 1257 and 1284 they captured the capital but each time they soon withdrew. Then in 1288 the Vietnamese leader Tran Hung Dao routed the Mongols at the Bach Dang River. However, in the early 15th century China tried to regain control of North Vietnam. In 1407 they occupied the country but their rule was resisted. In 1418, Le Loi began the Lam Son Uprising. By 1428 the Chinese were driven out and Le Loi became the Emperor Le Thai To. Under his successors the central Vietnamese state of Champa became a vassal state of North Vietnam. However, in the early 16th century the power of the Le dynasty declined. During the 17th and 18th centuries two rival families effectively held power, the Trinh in the north and the Nguyen in the south. The Nguyen family conquered the

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