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Leadership Style 
What style of leadership is the most effective in leading an
organization? Is it important to be well-liked, or are results all
that matter? Cite examples that support your conclusions. In
addition to the attached document, please use citations and also
two or more references or is a MUST

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Chapter Eight
Leadership
Digital'Vision/Thinkstock
Learning(Objec-ves
A"er%reading%this%chapter%and%studying%the%materials,%you%should%be%able%to:
Explain(the(basic(nature(of(leadership(in(organiza6ons.
Discover(the(poten6al(traits(and(characteris6cs(that(have(been(associated(with(leadership.
Use(the(elements(of(the(behavioral(theories(to(improve(leadership(ac6vi6es.
Employ(situa6onal(and(con6ngency(theories(to(expand(concepts(about(leader(e?ec6veness.
Apply(recent(theories(of(leadership(to(the(workplace.Print 8/11/14,
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A1er(a(dras-c(economic(downturn(in(2008,(a(major(overhaul(was(needed
to(revitalize(General(Motors.
Learning(Objec6ve(#1:
What(is(the(nature(of(leadership(in(organiza-ons?
8.1(The(Nature(of(Leadership
Making(a(dis6nc6on(between(the(terms("leadership"(and("management"(has(been(an(ongoing(focus(of(organiza6onal(behavior(authors.(John(KoNer((1990)(argues(that
management(focuses(on(coping(with(complexity(through(the(use(of(the(basic(managerial(func6ons(of(planning,(organizing,(and(control.(Robert(House(and(R.(J.(Aditya((1997)
link(the(concept(of(management(with(the(use(of(formal(authority(that(arises(from(a(person's(organiza6onal(rank.(In(contrast,(leadership(concentrates(on(coping(with(change
and(providing(guidance.(Leaders(establish(direc6on(by(communica6ng(a(vision(and(inspiring(followers.(In(essence,(not(all(managers(are(e?ec6ve(leaders,(and(not(all(strong
leaders(are(managers.(The(ideal,(of(course,(would(be(to(employ(managers(who(are(also(quality(leaders(whenever(possible.
The(ability(to(lead(has(been(observed(and(reported(on(for(many(centuries.(Many(ancient(wri6ngs(tell(tales(of(leaders(who(served(in(baNle,(commanded(na6ons,(or(taught
religious(ideas.(In(a(general(sense,(the(primary(quali6es(associated(with(leadership(are(vision,(enthusiasm,(trust,(courage,(passion,(coaching,(developing(others,(intensity,(love,
and(even(serving(as(a(parent(?gure.(In(an(organiza6onal(context,(leadership(involves(in?uencing(the(behaviors(of(individuals(and(groups(to(work(toward(predetermined(goals.
E?ec6ve(leaders(in?uence(behaviors(in(posi6ve(ways.(Examples(of(e?ec6ve(leaders(include(the(harddriving(but(respected(Jack(Welch(during(his(tenure(at(General(Electric;(the
powerful(mo6vator(Sheryl(Sandberg(from(Facebook;(and(the(driven,(intellectual(Steve(Jobs(of(Apple(Inc.(and(Bill(Gates(of(Microsob;(the(funcloving(and(tenacious(Herb
Kelleher,(founder(and(CEO(of(Southwest(Airlines;(the(charisma6c(communicator(Andrea(Jung,(CEO(of(Avon(Products,(Inc.;(the(toughcascnails(Mike(Ditka,(former(head(coach(of
the(Chicago(Bears;(and(Tony(Dungy,(the(calm,(quiet,(and(consistent(former(head(coach(of(the(Indianapolis(Colts.(As(these(examples(indicate,(e?ec6ve(leadership(can(take(many
forms.
Consequently,(it(is(not(surprising(that(the(study(of(leadership(includes(a(variety(of(perspec6ves.(This(chapter(examines(several(categories(of(leadership(theories(including(trait,
behavioral,(situa6onal,(and(con6ngency,(as(well(as(an(eclec6c(set(of(recent(theories.(Each(adds(unique(elements(to(our(understanding(of(what(leaders(do(and(how(e?ec6ve
leaders(operate.
OB(IN(ACTION
Can(General(Motors(Completely(Recover?
In(2008,(when(a(dras6c(economic(downturn(a?ected(the(United(States(and(other
countries,(General(Motors((GM)(was(forced(into(bankruptcy.(A(mul6tude(of(poor
strategic(decisions,(combined(with(increasing(pressure(from(compe6ng(organiza6ons,
placed(the(future(of(the(company(in(jeopardy.(GM(applied(for(governmental(assistance
in(the(form(of(funding(to(con6nue(opera6ons.
At(the(6me(of(the(bailout,(General(Motors(chief(execu6ve(o?cer(Fritz(Henderson(was
called(to(tes6fy(before(Congress(to(jus6fy(the(funding.(Henderson(and(execu6ves(from
other(auto(manufacturers(had(previously(?own(to(Washington(on(corporate(jets(earlier
in(the(year.(This(led(to(a(major(public(rela6ons(disaster(in(which(members(of(Congress
made(loud(accusa6ons(of(manager(excess(in(the(area(of(spending(and(general
disregard(for(the(many(who(had(lost(jobs.
As(part(of(the(bailout(process,(Henderson(was(replaced(by(Daniel(F.(Ackerson,(who(was
the(son(of(a(GM(sales(manager.(The(company(had(to(emerge(as(a(leaner,(more
compe66ve,(and(smaller(en6ty.(Longcstanding(brands,(including(Oldsmobile,(Pon6ac,
and(Saturn(were(gone,(along(with(the(Hummer(line(of(vehicles.(The(Cadillac,(Chevrolet,(and(GMC(brands(all(were(realigned(under(the(name(General(Motors
Company.(With(union(agreement,(substan6al(cuts(were(made(to(wages,(and(many(employees(lost(their(jobs.(Numerous(GM(dealerships(were(closed,(further
crea6ng(nega6ve(publicity.(Consumer(con?dence(in(the(company(was(low.
Aber(about(a(year(in(the(CEO(posi6on,(Daniel(Ackerson(was(replaced(by(Edward(E.(Whitacre,(Jr.,(the(former(chairman(of(AT&T,(in(part(because(the(board(of
directors(believed(that(a(complete(overhaul(of(GM's(culture(would(be(the(company's(longcterm(saving(grace.(Whitacre(had(taken(Southwestern(Bell(and
changed(it(into(SBC,(which(eventually(acquired(and(became(the(new(AT&T(and(con6nued(to(aggressively(expand.(Whitacre,(who(is(known(by(many(as("Big
Ed,"(noted(that(he(would(have(to("learn(about(cars"((Thomson(&(Merx,(2009).
To(jus6fy(choosing(a(person(from(a(di?erent(industry(to(lead(General(Motors,(GM(decision(makers(noted(that(Alan(Mulally,(the(former(head(of(Boeing,(hadPrint
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led(the(Ford(Motor(Company(through(turbulent(6mes(without(the(need(of(governmental(funds.("What(was(required(was(somebody(with(savvy,(bigcbusiness
experience(that(could(take(a(company,(change(its(management(culture,(make(some(of(those(tough(decisions(to(put(it(on(that(path(toward(viability,"(White
House(Press(Secretary(Robert(Gibbs(told(reporters(at(a(brie?ng.(Gibbs(also(termed(the(appointment(a("good(choice"(that(met(with(the(favor(of(the
administra6on((Thomson(&(Merx,(2009).
Part(of(the(turnaround(GM(needed(to(make(in(the(automo6ve(marketplace(involved(more(e?ec6vely(compe6ng(in(the(fuelce?cient(smallerccar(market.(GM
management(responded(with(the(development(of(the(Chevrolet(Cruze((New(York(Times,(2011b).(Several(other(major(restructuring(e?orts(were(also(made.
By(the(summer(of(2010,(the(American(auto(industry(began(to(turn(around.(Jobs(were(growing.(Factory(workers(received(their(?rst(healthy(pro?tcsharing
checks(in(years.(Sales(were(rebounding,(with(the(Commerce(Department(calling(automobiles(a(bright(spot(in(July's(mostly(disappoin6ng(retail(sales((New(York
Times,(2011a).
General(Motors(faced(a(weak(economy,(con6nuing(compe66on,(and(residual(animosity(for(the(many(maneuvers(made(to(keep(the(company(alive,(yet(by
2012(the(company(had(earned(record(pro?ts(and(repaid(nearly(half(of(the(bailout(funds(alloNed(to(the(organiza6on.(Whitacre(maintained(a(low(pro?le
throughout(the(turnaround.(His(and(the(company's(longcterm(success(will(be(determined(as(GM(?nds(a(new(place(in(the(worldwide(automobile(industry.
Ques-ons(for(Students
1.(Did(the(board(of(directors(at(General(Motors(choose(a(manager(or(a(leader(when(the(company(selected(Mr.(Whitacre?
2.(What(type(of(leadership(style(works(best(when(a(company(is(in(crisis?
3.(Will(the(same(leadership(style(succeed(if(General(Motors(moves(into(calmer(waters(and(regains(stability?Print
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Personality(Traits(P(The(Big(Five
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Click to Start Flash Plug-in
Learning(Objec6ve(#2:
What(traits(and(characteris-cs(are(associated(with(leadership?
8.2(Trait(Theories
Leadership(traits(are(physical(and(personality(characteris6cs(that(di?eren6ate(leaders(from(followers.(In(the(early(1900s,(one(assump6on(was(that(certain(people(were(simply
born(to(lead.(According(to(this(assump6on,(leadership(cannot(be(taught;(it(consists(of(inherent(abili6es.(Further,(the(ability(to(lead(was(assumed(to(be(a(universally(applicable
skill.(Thus,(a(leader(who(succeeds(in(one(organiza6on(will(likely(be(equally(e?ec6ve(in(any(other,(which(in(turn(suggests(that(all(e?ec6ve(leaders(share(common(traits.(These
ideas(informed(the(great'man(approach(to(leadership,(which(was(studied(for(many(years(prior(to(World(War(II.(Table(8.1(summarizes(many(of(the(items(that(were(inves6gated,
all(in(search(of(common(traits(and(characteris6cs(among(great(leaders.
Table(8.1:(Poten-al(traits(and(characteris-cs(of(e?ec-ve(leaders
Physical(Characteris-cs Personal(Traits Personality(Traits
Social(Traits
height verbal(skills ambi6on empathy
strength wisdom con?dence tact
physical(aNrac6veness judgment ini6a6ve pa6ence
stamina intellect persistence trust
vitality capacity(for(work imagina6on status
Clearly,(many(of(the(items(in(the(table(are(admirable(traits(and(personal(strengths.(Unfortunately,(a(great(deal(of(research(indicates(that(they(are(not(universally(found(in
successful(leaders((Geier,(1967).(As(a(result,(interest(in(the(great(man(approach(began(to(wane((Kirkpatrick(&(Locke,(1991).
The(Big(Five(Personality(Traits
As(a(modi?ca6on(of(the(great(man(approach,(one(traitcbased(theory(suggests(that(although(certain(character(traits
may(be(innate,(leaders(can(be(developed(through(experience(and(learning.(In(many(business(organiza6ons,
elements(of(personality(are(iden6?ed(using(a(widely(used(instrument,(the(MyerscBriggs(Type(Indicator((MBTI),
which(measures(introversion/extraversion,(sensing/intui6ve,(thinking/feeling,(and(judging/perceiving(personality
characteris6cs(in(individuals((Quenk,(2000).(Although(evidence(of(the(validity(of(the(actual(instrument(has(been
mixed,(some(organiza6onal(leaders(have(concluded(that(it(does(provide(a(pathway(to(greater(selfcawareness,(which
might(have(implica6ons(for(e?ec6ve(leadership((Gardner(&(Mar6nko,(1996).
A(closely(related(approach,(known(as(the(?vecfactor(model(of(personality,(or(the(Big(Five(theory,(has(achieved(more
posi6ve(research(results((McCrae,(1992).(In(essence,(the(model(suggests(that(?ve(basic(dimensions(underlie
personality,(including(many(of(the(traits(noted(in(Table(8.1((McCrae(&(Costa,(1989).(The(following(are(the(Big(Five
factors:
1.(Extroversion—One's(comfort(level(with(rela6onships.(People(who(are(extroverts(tend(to(be(outgoing,(asser6ve,
and(social.(Introverts(tend(to(be(reserved,(6mid,(and(quiet.
2.(Agreeableness—One's(tendency(to(defer(to(others.(Highly(agreeable(people(are(coopera6ve(and(trus6ng.
People(who(are(less(agreeable(tend(to(be(antagonis6c,(cold,(and(untrus6ng.
3.(Conscien6ousness—Reliability(in(dealing(with(others.(A(person(who(is(highly(conscien6ous(is(me6culous,
responsible,(organized,(and(dependable.(People(who(are(less(conscien6ous(are(easily(distracted,(disorganized,
and(oben(unreliable.
4.(Neuro6cism(vs.(emo6onal(stability—A(person's(tendency(to(become(or(not(become(upset(or(emo6onal(and(his(or(her(ability(to(deal(with(stress(in(general.(People(who(are
emo6onally(stable(tend(to(be(calm,(selfccon?dent,(and(secure.(People(who(are(less(emo6onally(stable(tend(to(be(nervous,(anxious,(and(insecure.
5.(Openness(to(experience—A(person's(range(of(interests(and(curiosity(regarding(new(experiences(and(adventures.(Open(people(are(crea6ve(and(inquisi6ve(and(ask
numerous(ques6ons.(People(who(are(less(open(tend(to(be(conven6onal(and(a(bit(rigid,(and(prefer(the(status(quo.
These(?ve(factors(have(been(related(to(e?ec6ve(general(job(performance,(due,(in(part,(to(enhanced(levels(of(job(knowledge(and(conscien6ous(e?ort((Mount,(Barrick,(&
Strauss,(1994;(Schmidt(&(Hunter,(1998).(These(same(?ve(factors(have(also(been(associated(with(leadership.(Of(the(?ve,(extroversion(has(been(the(most(predic6ve(of(becomingPrint
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Leadership(is(in?uencing(the(behaviors(of(others.
a(leader;(however,(it(does(not(necessarily(lead(to(leader(e?ec7veness,(or(the(ability(to(be(a(quality(leader((Judge(et(al.,
2002).(Some(evidence(has(emerged(no6ng(that(conscien6ousness(and(openness(to(experience(are(correlated(with(leader
e?ec6veness((Judge(et(al.,(2002),(which(suggests(a(combina6on(of(the(?ve(traits(might(increase(the(likelihood(a(person(will
be(an(e?ec6ve(leader.
The(great(man(and(Big(Five(assessments(of(leader(traits(and(characteris6cs(oben(fail(to(separate(two(important(concepts.
One(is(that(certain(personality(traits(can(predict(the(chances(that(an(individual(will(be(promoted(to(a(leadership(role.
Logically,(then,(an(extroverted(individual(would(be(more(readily(no6ced(in(a(social(serng(and(become(a(leader(as(a(result.
The(second(concept(points(to(the(problem(area:(Becoming(a(leader(does(not(guarantee(e?ec6veness.(Future(research(and
conceptual(development(may(result(in(studies(designed(to(iden6fy(any(personality(factors(that(predict(e?ec6veness(rather
than(ability(to(obtain(the(role.
Intelligence%and%Leader%E?ec

 

 

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