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Respond to your colleagues' postings in one or more of the following ways:


    • Ask a probing question.


    • Share an insight from having read your colleague's posting.


    • Offer and support an opinion.


    • Validate an idea with your own experience.


    • Make a suggestion.


  • Expand on your colleague's posting.

The philosophy of science deal with the overall methods of science and how the research is conducted. Paradigm, epistemology, and ontology all play a role in how the scientist conducts his research and they are all interconnected. The paradigm of philosophy is the model or the foundation in which a scientist starts his/her research, expecting the answer to come out as what it already known. However, if it does not and the research proves something else it is called a paradigm shift. In the case of Kuhn's paradigm, it encourages new research strategies and new problems to explains actions that old paradigms could not explain (Reynolds, P. 2007, p. 20).

            Epistemology deals with how people come to know what they know and how the precede in getting that information (Blaikie, N. 2004, pp. 1). Ontology deals with what exists (Blaikie, N. 2004, pp. 1). With both of these, the scientist has to make certain assumptions about each one to precede with their research. They have to decided what exist and how they got the knowledge of its existence (Blaikie, N, 2004, pp. 4). The paradigm then gives them a strategy to prove the knowledge or to disprove it by shifting the paradigm. (Blaikie, N. 2004, pp.4). 

            Basically the philosophy of science is the paradigm strategy used to determine or undetermined what is thought to be true. This is done by making certain assumptions about epistemology and ontology. One stance on a certain issues can have an effect on the stance of other issues (Blaikie, N. 2004, pp.3). Listed below is the definitions of each one.  



"Epistemology refers to the theory of knowledge, how human beings come to have knowledge of the world around them - how we know what we know " (Blaikie, N. 2004, pp. 1). Used in the social science field it determines which scientific procedure derives dependable social science facts (Blaikie, N. 2004, pp. 1). There are two epistemology positions in social science: Nominalism and Realism. Nominalism is the concept that words used to explain what is observed is not in reality and Realism describes the social meaning beyond what is actually seen for something deeper (Blaike, N. 2004. pp. 3)


"Ontology is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with the nature of what exists. It is the study of theories of being, theories about what makes up reality" (Blaikie, N. 2004, pp. 1). There are two categories: materialist and realism they deal with what is reality and the existence of inanimate objects and human beings (Blaikie, N. 2004, pp.2).


"Paradigm refers either to a model or an example to be followed or to an established system or way of doing things" (Blaikie, N. 2004, pp.1). It is the way the knowledge nature is established for scientist to use as a foundation for research. It is the prerequisite of the perception that was is thought to be true is true. Scientific Revolution is the process of replacing the old with a new paradigm (Blaikie, N. 2004, pp. 6).


Blaikie, N. (2004). Epistemology. In M. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman, & T. Liao             (Eds.),  Encyclopedia of social science research methods. (pp. 310-311). Thousand Oaks,             CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. doi:             http://dx.doi.org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.4135/9781412950589.n281. Retrieved        December 2, 2015from the Walden Library databases.


Blaikie, N. (2004). Ontology, ontological. In M. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman, & T. Liao            (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social science research methods. (p. 768). Thousand Oaks, CA:     SAGE Publications, Inc. doi:             http://dx.doi.org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.4135/9781412950589.n663. Retrieved        December 2, 2015from the Walden Library databases.

Blaikie, N. (2004). Paradigm. In M. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman, & T. Liao (Eds.),  Encyclopedia of          social science research methods. (pp. 786-788). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE      Publications, Inc. doi:             http://dx.doi.org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.4135/9781412950589.n685. Retrieved        December 2, 2015from the Walden Library databases.

Blaikie, N. (2004). Philosophy of social research. In M. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman, & T. Liao     (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social science research methods. (pp. 817-821). Thousand Oaks,       CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. doi:             http://dx.doi.org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.4135/9781412950589.n710. Retrieved        December 2, 2015from the Walden Library databases.

Reynolds, P. D. (2007).  A primer in theory construction. Boston, MA: Pearson Education

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